Retrofit源码分析

2018-9-3 释然 前端技术资源

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1、简介

retrofit是一个封装okhttp请求的网络请求库,可以通过Rxjava适配返回信息。

2、原理分析

我们通过Retrofit.Builder建造者模式创建一个Retrofit实例对象

public static final class Builder {
    /**
      *Android线程切换的类 
      */
    private final Platform platform;
    private @Nullable okhttp3.Call.Factory callFactory;
    private HttpUrl baseUrl;
    private final List<Converter.Factory> converterFactories = new ArrayList<>();
    private final List<CallAdapter.Factory> callAdapterFactories = new ArrayList<>();
    private @Nullable Executor callbackExecutor;
    private boolean validateEagerly;

    Builder(Platform platform) {
      this.platform = platform;
    }

    public Builder() {
      this(Platform.get());
    }

    Builder(Retrofit retrofit) {
      platform = Platform.get();
      callFactory = retrofit.callFactory;
      baseUrl = retrofit.baseUrl;

      converterFactories.addAll(retrofit.converterFactories);
      // Remove the default BuiltInConverters instance added by build().
      converterFactories.remove(0);

      callAdapterFactories.addAll(retrofit.callAdapterFactories);
      // Remove the default, platform-aware call adapter added by build().
      callAdapterFactories.remove(callAdapterFactories.size() - 1);

      callbackExecutor = retrofit.callbackExecutor;
      validateEagerly = retrofit.validateEagerly;
    }

    public Builder client(OkHttpClient client) {
      return callFactory(checkNotNull(client, "client == null"));
    }


    public Builder callFactory(okhttp3.Call.Factory factory) {
      this.callFactory = checkNotNull(factory, "factory == null");
      return this;
    }


    public Builder baseUrl(String baseUrl) {
      checkNotNull(baseUrl, "baseUrl == null");
      HttpUrl httpUrl = HttpUrl.parse(baseUrl);
      if (httpUrl == null) {
        throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal URL: " + baseUrl);
      }
      return baseUrl(httpUrl);
    }

    public Builder baseUrl(HttpUrl baseUrl) {
      checkNotNull(baseUrl, "baseUrl == null");
      List<String> pathSegments = baseUrl.pathSegments();
      if (!"".equals(pathSegments.get(pathSegments.size() - 1))) {
        throw new IllegalArgumentException("baseUrl must end in /: " + baseUrl);
      }
      this.baseUrl = baseUrl;
      return this;
    }

    public Builder addConverterFactory(Converter.Factory factory) {
      converterFactories.add(checkNotNull(factory, "factory == null"));
      return this;
    }


    public Builder addCallAdapterFactory(CallAdapter.Factory factory) {
      callAdapterFactories.add(checkNotNull(factory, "factory == null"));
      return this;
    }

    public Builder callbackExecutor(Executor executor) {
      this.callbackExecutor = checkNotNull(executor, "executor == null");
      return this;
    }

    public List<CallAdapter.Factory> callAdapterFactories() {
      return this.callAdapterFactories;
    }

    public List<Converter.Factory> converterFactories() {
      return this.converterFactories;
    }

    public Builder validateEagerly(boolean validateEagerly) {
      this.validateEagerly = validateEagerly;
      return this;
    }

    public Retrofit build() {
      if (baseUrl == null) {
        throw new IllegalStateException("Base URL required.");
      }

      okhttp3.Call.Factory callFactory = this.callFactory;
      if (callFactory == null) {
        callFactory = new OkHttpClient();
      }

      Executor callbackExecutor = this.callbackExecutor;
      if (callbackExecutor == null) {
        callbackExecutor = platform.defaultCallbackExecutor();
      }

      // Make a defensive copy of the adapters and add the default Call adapter.
      List<CallAdapter.Factory> callAdapterFactories = new ArrayList<>(this.callAdapterFactories);
      callAdapterFactories.add(platform.defaultCallAdapterFactory(callbackExecutor));

      // Make a defensive copy of the converters.
      List<Converter.Factory> converterFactories =
          new ArrayList<>(1 + this.converterFactories.size());

      // Add the built-in converter factory first. This prevents overriding its behavior but also
      // ensures correct behavior when using converters that consume all types.
      converterFactories.add(new BuiltInConverters());
      converterFactories.addAll(this.converterFactories);

      return new Retrofit(callFactory, baseUrl, unmodifiableList(converterFactories),
          unmodifiableList(callAdapterFactories), callbackExecutor, validateEagerly);
    }
 } 
	
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通过Retrofit.Builder中build方法创建一个Retrofit实例对象,在创建Retrofit时会判断用户创建OkhttpClient对象,没有创建Retrofit会创建一个默认okhttpClient对象,然后设置Platform中的主线程线程池,设置线程池处理器交给主线程Looper对象。然后创建一个Retrofit对象。我们通过Retrofit.create创建一个接口代理类

 public <T> T create(final Class<T> service) {
    Utils.validateServiceInterface(service);
    if (validateEagerly) {
      eagerlyValidateMethods(service);
    }
    return (T) Proxy.newProxyInstance(service.getClassLoader(), new Class<?>[] { service },
        new InvocationHandler() {
          private final Platform platform = Platform.get();

          @Override public Object invoke(Object proxy, Method method, @Nullable Object[] args)
              throws Throwable {
            // If the method is a method from Object then defer to normal invocation.
            if (method.getDeclaringClass() == Object.class) {
              return method.invoke(this, args);
            }
            if (platform.isDefaultMethod(method)) {
              return platform.invokeDefaultMethod(method, service, proxy, args);
            }
            ServiceMethod<Object, Object> serviceMethod =
                (ServiceMethod<Object, Object>) loadServiceMethod(method);
            OkHttpCall<Object> okHttpCall = new OkHttpCall<>(serviceMethod, args);
            return serviceMethod.adapt(okHttpCall);
          }
        });
  } 
	
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在调用Creater方法时,通过代理类创建Service实例对象,当我们通过接口实例对象调用方法时,通过invoke方法时,通过Method创建一个ServiceMethod对象,然后把ServiceMethod存储起来

 public ServiceMethod build() {
          callAdapter = createCallAdapter();
          responseType = callAdapter.responseType();
          if (responseType == Response.class || responseType == okhttp3.Response.class) {
            throw methodError("'"
                + Utils.getRawType(responseType).getName()
                + "' is not a valid response body type. Did you mean ResponseBody?");
          }
          responseConverter = createResponseConverter();

          for (Annotation annotation : methodAnnotations) {
            parseMethodAnnotation(annotation);
          }

          if (httpMethod == null) {
            throw methodError("HTTP method annotation is required (e.g., @GET, @POST, etc.).");
          }

          if (!hasBody) {
            if (isMultipart) {
              throw methodError(
                  "Multipart can only be specified on HTTP methods with request body (e.g., @POST).");
            }
            if (isFormEncoded) {
              throw methodError("FormUrlEncoded can only be specified on HTTP methods with "
                  + "request body (e.g., @POST).");
            }
          }

          int parameterCount = parameterAnnotationsArray.length;
          parameterHandlers = new ParameterHandler<?>[parameterCount];
          for (int p = 0; p < parameterCount; p++) {
            Type parameterType = parameterTypes[p];
            if (Utils.hasUnresolvableType(parameterType)) {
              throw parameterError(p, "Parameter type must not include a type variable or wildcard: %s",
                  parameterType);
            }

            Annotation[] parameterAnnotations = parameterAnnotationsArray[p];
            if (parameterAnnotations == null) {
              throw parameterError(p, "No Retrofit annotation found.");
            }

            parameterHandlers[p] = parseParameter(p, parameterType, parameterAnnotations);
          }

          if (relativeUrl == null && !gotUrl) {
            throw methodError("Missing either @%s URL or @Url parameter.", httpMethod);
          }
          if (!isFormEncoded && !isMultipart && !hasBody && gotBody) {
            throw methodError("Non-body HTTP method cannot contain @Body.");
          }
          if (isFormEncoded && !gotField) {
            throw methodError("Form-encoded method must contain at least one @Field.");
          }
          if (isMultipart && !gotPart) {
            throw methodError("Multipart method must contain at least one @Part.");
          }

          return new ServiceMethod<>(this);
        }


    private CallAdapter<T, R> createCallAdapter() {
            /**
             *获取方法返回值类型
             */
          Type returnType = method.getGenericReturnType();
          if (Utils.hasUnresolvableType(returnType)) {
            throw methodError(
                "Method return type must not include a type variable or wildcard: %s", returnType);
          }
          if (returnType == void.class) {
            throw methodError("Service methods cannot return void.");
          }
          //获取注解信息
          Annotation[] annotations = method.getAnnotations();
          try {
            //noinspection unchecked
            return (CallAdapter<T, R>) retrofit.callAdapter(returnType, annotations);
          } catch (RuntimeException e) { // Wide exception range because factories are user code.
            throw methodError(e, "Unable to create call adapter for %s", returnType);
          }
        } 
	
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在创建ServiceMethod时,获取我们okhttp请求是否有返回值,没有返回值抛出异常,然后获取注解信息,然后获取retrofit中CallAdapter.Factory,然后调用get方法,我们在通过rxjavaFactoryAdapter.create创建的就是实现CallAdapter.Factory对象,然后调用CallAdapter.Factory中respenseType方法,然后通过我们传递converter对数据进行序列化,可以通过gson和fastjson进行实例化对象,然后通过parseMethodAnnomation解析请求类型

 private void parseHttpMethodAndPath(String httpMethod, String value, boolean hasBody) {
          if (this.httpMethod != null) {
            throw methodError("Only one HTTP method is allowed. Found: %s and %s.",
                this.httpMethod, httpMethod);
          }
          this.httpMethod = httpMethod;
          this.hasBody = hasBody;

          if (value.isEmpty()) {
            return;
          }

          // Get the relative URL path and existing query string, if present.
          int question = value.indexOf('?');
          if (question != -1 && question < value.length() - 1) {
            // Ensure the query string does not have any named parameters.
            String queryParams = value.substring(question + 1);
            Matcher queryParamMatcher = PARAM_URL_REGEX.matcher(queryParams);
            if (queryParamMatcher.find()) {
              throw methodError("URL query string \"%s\" must not have replace block. "
                  + "For dynamic query parameters use @Query.", queryParams);
            }
          }

          this.relativeUrl = value;
          this.relativeUrlParamNames = parsePathParameters(value);
        } 
	
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通过注解类型获取到请求类型时,通过调用相关方法解析获取到请求url,然后通过注解获取方法中是否有注解字段,有注解信息存储到Set集合中。然后创建一个OkhttpCall对象,通过调用serviceMethod.adapt方法做网络请求,serviceMethod.adapt调用是callAdapter中的adapt方法,如果用户没有设置callAdapter模式使用的是ExecutorCallAdapterFactory中的adapt方法

 public CallAdapter<?, ?> get(Type returnType, Annotation[] annotations, Retrofit retrofit) {
            if (getRawType(returnType) != Call.class) {
                return null;
            } else {
                final Type responseType = Utils.getCallResponseType(returnType);
                return new CallAdapter<Object, Call<?>>() {
                    public Type responseType() {
                        return responseType;
                    }

                    public Call<Object> adapt(Call<Object> call) {
                        return new ExecutorCallAdapterFactory.ExecutorCallbackCall(ExecutorCallAdapterFactory.this.callbackExecutor, call);
                    }
                };
            }
        } 
	
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在ExectorCallAdapterFactory中调用组装的Call方法中enqueue方法调用异步网络请求,成功后通过Platform中MainThreadExecutor切换到主线程。在调用callback中的enqueue,onResponse和onFairlure方法时实际是调用到OkhttpCall方法的onResponse方法,在OkHttpCall.enqueue中重新组建OkHttp.Call url和参数信息,然后封装请求,请求成功后通过parseResponse解析返回信息状态,然后把返回信息状态成ResponseBody对象,调用ServiceMethod.toResponse解析,在toResponse中实际是我们设置ConverterFactory对象解析数据,完成后调用callBack中onSuccess方法。

 @Override public void enqueue(final Callback<T> callback) {
        checkNotNull(callback, "callback == null");

        okhttp3.Call call;
        Throwable failure;

        synchronized (this) {
          if (executed) throw new IllegalStateException("Already executed.");
          executed = true;

          call = rawCall;
          failure = creationFailure;
          if (call == null && failure == null) {
            try {
              call = rawCall = createRawCall();
            } catch (Throwable t) {
              throwIfFatal(t);
              failure = creationFailure = t;
            }
          }
        }

        if (failure != null) {
          callback.onFailure(this, failure);
          return;
        }

        if (canceled) {
          call.cancel();
        }

        call.enqueue(new okhttp3.Callback() {
          @Override public void onResponse(okhttp3.Call call, okhttp3.Response rawResponse) {
            Response<T> response;
            try {
              response = parseResponse(rawResponse);
            } catch (Throwable e) {
              callFailure(e);
              return;
            }

            try {
              callback.onResponse(OkHttpCall.this, response);
            } catch (Throwable t) {
              t.printStackTrace();
            }
          }

          @Override public void onFailure(okhttp3.Call call, IOException e) {
            callFailure(e);
          }

          private void callFailure(Throwable e) {
            try {
              callback.onFailure(OkHttpCall.this, e);
            } catch (Throwable t) {
              t.printStackTrace();
            }
          }
        });
      }
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标签: Retrofit源码分析


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